2013 年一月 - 下载 PDF版本

 

加拿大公民法律的改变

加拿大政府在公民法律有重要的改变。加拿大人后代公民权给非加拿大出生子女只限
于第一代。另外,提出公民入籍申请时,申请人要先提交语文能力的证明。

后代公民权的限制

2009年4月17日通过改变加拿大公民法律。其中重大修改就是限制加拿大人非加拿大出生后代通过父母血统因素成为加国公民。

按新法律,加拿大籍父母只能通过他们血统因素给自己非加拿大出生子女申请加国公民权,如果至少父母其中一位是出生在加拿大或入籍公民的加国公民。这些改变也同样应用于领养子女的公民权。通过直接途径成为加拿大公民的领养子女(非加拿大出生孩子,1974年1月1日或之后被领养可以直接成为加拿大公民而不需要移民来加拿大),非加拿大出生或被领养人士通过父母血统成为加国公民不可以继续将公民权传给他们非加拿大出生或领养后代。

被领养或非加拿大出生人士是通过入籍公民而成为公民,可将公民权传给他们的子女,即使子女并非在加拿大出生的。

这限制不适用于为加拿大联邦政府,省政府,军队于外地工作的加拿大人所生的子女,这些子女都会是加拿大公民,无论他们是非加拿大出生的多少后代。

申请公民入籍的语文新规则

2012年11月1日后的公民入籍申请,所有18至54岁的申请人都要提交符合语言要求的证明,达到加拿大语言标准听和讲第四级程度。可接受语言能力证明包括移民局认可的独立测试,或完成英语或法语的中学,专上教育课程,或完成政府资助语言培训的相应程度(例如LINC)。

除这些评核材料外,移民局会继续以职员或入籍法官与申请人的沟通来评核申请人的语言能力。

申请人在入籍申请时便要提交有符合语言能力的证明,没有这些证明移民局会退回申请表。

55岁以上的申请人会被豁免语言能力的要求。移民局的个案管理部亦可对真正特殊需要的18-54岁申请人,豁免语言能力的要求。要得到豁免,申请人要向个案管理部申请,提交医生的证明,不能达到语言要求的程度。

查询更多公民入籍的规则,请到他们的网站http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/citizenship/
index.asp

移民法的改变

加拿大公民及移民部部(CIC)近年来就担保家庭规例作出多项改变。禁止暴力犯罪
人士担保规制于2011年11月17日起生效。任何被定暴力犯罪人士被禁止担保以及扩
大家庭暴力的受害对象名单者。

因家庭暴力失去担保资格

家庭暴力失去担保资格是指,任何人被判犯罪及引致列表内亲属身体受伤,便失去担保家庭成员的资格。旧有列表内的亲属包括:

  • 配偶,伴侣,依附子女,担保人、担保人伴侣依附子女的依附子女和
  • 担保人、担保人伴侣的兄弟姊妹,父母或祖父母,叔婶或表亲。

在新改变的规则,列表内的亲属将扩大包括:

  • 担保人的前度配偶/伴侣及其子女;
  • 担保人配偶/伴侣的前度配偶及其子女;
  • 担保人兄弟姊妹,父母,祖父母,叔婶,表亲的伴侣或前度伴侣;
  • 担保人兄弟姊妹,父母,祖父母,叔婶,表亲的配偶或前度配偶;
  • 担保人或现时及前度配偶/伴侣照顾及管理的寄养孩子,包括现时及之前的寄养孩子;和
  • 担保人现时或前度男朋友或女朋友,无论是否住在一起,或这个人的家庭成员。

因暴力犯罪失去担保资格

新改变的规则下,任何人被判对任何人企图或施暴,罪行被判最高可以是十年监禁的人士失去担保家庭成员来加拿大的资格。

失去担保资格的时限

新的改变没有更改失去担保资格的时限。被定暴力犯罪人士在加拿大被判罪而失去担保资格的时限是直至:

  • 犯罪上诉被判没罪
  • 犯罪获得赦免
  • 犯罪刑罚完满五年之后

如果在加拿大之外被判罪而失去担保资格的时限是直至:

  • 犯罪上诉被判没罪;或
  • 犯罪刑罚完满五年之后而担保人能显示改过自新。
  • 被担的保配偶五年内不能做配偶担保人

这项改变从2012年3月2日生效。被担保的配偶或伴侣在成为永久居民的五年内不能担保新的配偶或伴侣,即使在五年内被担保配偶已获得公民身份。这项改变会应用于2012年3月2日及之后的配偶担保申请。担保家庭类别的其他家庭成员不受影响。

被配偶担保受有条件永久居留

2012年10月25日起移民部长推出新的移民和难民法规则。新的改变是,配偶担保申请时,配偶、同居伴侣、亲密伴侣与担保人关系是两年或以下,没有共同子女,就会受有条件的永久居留期限。有条件永久居留是指被担保的配偶或伴侣必须在获得永久居留身份的两年内要与担保人以配偶/伴侣关系共同生活。如不能满足这项条件,永久居留身份可以被撤消,亦可能得离境令离开加拿大。

被担保配偶/伴侣获得移民身份,在两年有条件居留期间不须要自动向移民局提供配偶/伴侣关系共同生活的证明除非被移民局提出要求。移民局未必会调查所有被担保人士,只是对被怀疑未能满足居留条件人士调查。被担保配偶应该保存重要的证据作保护,以备可能会被调查。

移民部长Jason Kenney表示这些改变用来阻止假婚姻,需然他从没提出资料指明这个问题的严重程度,移民部的资料亦没指出假婚姻是严重问题。

在例外情况下有条件的永久居留会被终止,这些例外情况包括:

  • 有证明被虐待,包括身体,性,精神及经济的虐待,
  • 有证明被担保人疏忽照顾,例如没有提供基本生存照顾,
  • 担保人不能保护被担保配偶/伴侣受到担保人有关系人士的虐待或疏忽照顾,无论这位人士是否住在同一居所,

担保人在期间死亡,而他们亦以配偶/伴侣关系共同生活至担保人死亡。

如有证据表明被担保配偶/伴侣在这些例外情况,可在这两年有条件永久居留中任何时间,致电移民局要求取消这条件,移民局电话是1-800-242-2100。

被担保配偶/伴侣可能有随同家庭成员或担保其家庭成员。这些随同家庭成员或担保家庭成员的移民身份都会受到担保人能否满足这些条件影响。

举个例子,一个由她的丈夫担保到加拿大的女人。担保申请提交于2012年11月。在那个时候,这名妇女和她的丈夫的关系只有一年,他们没有共同的孩子。她于2013年6月移民到在加拿大。这位女士会受两年有条件居留至2015年6月。如这位女士想担保申请之前婚姻的孩子来加拿大,她可以在这两年有条件居留期间提出申请。但如果她未能满足居留条件,移民身份可被撤消,亦影响到她孩子的担保申请。同样地,如这女士的孩子被丈夫在担保她时一同担保来加拿大。如果这女士不能满足有条件的居留规定,她随同孩子的担保也受影响。

如果女人从以前的婚姻,她希望赞助加拿大有一个孩子,她可以这样做,在这两年的有条件的时期。但是,如果发现不符合条件的永久居留要求的女人,她的永久居民身份可能会被撤销,赞助她的儿子会受到影响。同样的规则也适用于该女子来到加拿大,随后的儿子从先前的关系由目前的配偶在相同的赞助。如果女人不能满足有条件的永久居住的要求,两个女人和她的随行儿子的永久居民身份会受到影响。

如果你是被担保的配偶而受到新的条件永久居留权影响,你应寻求法律意见。

查询有条件居留资料可到移民局网站www.cic.gc.ca



Limitation of citizenship by descent


On April 17, 2009, a law was passed to change Canada’s Citizenship Act. Among others, the most notable effect of this amending legislation was that it limited Canadian citizenship by descent to the first generation of children born outside of Canada to a Canadian parent.

Pursuant to the new rules, Canadian parents can only pass citizenship to their children born outside of Canada if at least one parent was born in Canada or is a naturalized Canadian. This change affects the citizenship entitlement of adopted children as well. For adopted children who became Canadian citizen through the direct route, (i.e. the child was born outside Canada and adopted on or after January 1, 1974 and became citizen without having to immigrate to Canada), the adopted person’s children born outside Canada will not be Canadian citizen. For persons adopted outside Canada who became citizen through naturalization, they can pass citizenship to their children, even if their children are born outside Canada.

This limitation does not apply to all children born to a Canadian parent who is working outside the country for the Canadian federal or provincial governments, or serving in the Canadian forces. These children will be Canadian regardless of the generation in which they were born outside Canada.


New language rules for citizenship applicants


For all citizenship applications submited on and after November 1, 2012, all citizenship applicants aged 18- 54 must provide objective evidence that they meet the language requirement, achieving the Canadian Language Benchmark 4 in speaking and listening. Acceptable evidence of language ability include the results of a CIC approved third party test, or the evidence of completion of secondary or post secondary education in English or French, or the evidence of achieving the appropriate language level in certain government-funded language training programs (e.g. LINC).

Apart from the objective assessment tools, the CIC will continue to use the applicant’s interaction with CIC staff and with citizenship judges as part of the language ability assessment.

It is important to note that the CIC require the Applicant to submit evidence that he or she meets the language requirement at the time that the application was submitted. The CIC will return applications without evidence of language ability.

Persons over 55 years of age are exempted from meeting this language requirement. The Case Management Branch of the CIC also have discretionary authority to waive the language requirement for applicants between the age of 18 and 54 in exceptional cases of genuine need. In order to obtain this waiver, an applicant must submit a request to CMB, along with a medical opinion from his/her physician attesting that the applicant is unable to meet the language requirement.

For more information on current rules on Canadian citizenship, please visithttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/citizenship/index.asp.


Changes on Immigration law


The Minister for Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) has introduced changes to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations regarding sponsors in the recent years which tighten up sponsorship. The changes to the regulations to bar sponsorship for violence crime came into effect on November 17, 2011. The changes added a sponsorship bar for violent crime as well as expanded the list of victims of family violence which affect sponsorship bar.


Sponsorship Bar for Family Violence

 

Anyone convicted of an offence causing bodily harm under the criminal code against a list of relatives is barred from sponsorship. The previous list of relatives before the regulation changes was shorter and consisted of the following:

  • The spouse, partner, dependent child, or dependent child of a dependent child of the sponsor or the sponsor’s partner; and
  • The brother/sister, parent/grandparent, aunt/uncle or cousin of the sponsor or the sponsor’s partner.

With the regulory changes now in force, the expanded list of relatives includes:

  • The sponsor’s ex-spouse or ex-partner and their children;
  • The ex-spouse of the sponsor’s current spouse or partner and their children;
  • The partner or ex-partner of the sponsor’s brother/sister, parent/grandparent, aunt/uncle, or cousin;
  • The spouse or ex-spouse of the partner’s brother/sister, parent/grandparent, aunt/uncle, or cousin;
  • A foster child under the current or former care and control of the sponsor or their current or ex-spouse or partner; and
  • The sponsor’s current or ex-boyfriend/girlfriend, whether or not they live together, or a family member of that person.

 

Sponsorship Bar for Violent Crime

 

The new regulations have added a sponsorship bar for violent crime to any one convicted for committing or attempting to commit a violent offence punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of at least 10 years against anyone is now barred from sponsoring a member of the family class to come to Canada.

 

Length of the Sponsorship Bar

 

There are no changes to the length of the sponsorship bar under the new regulations. The sponsorship bar remains in effect for a potential sponsor convicted in Canada until the sponsor:

  • Has been acquitted on appeal for the crime;
  • Has been pardoned for the crime; or
  • Five years have passed since the sentence for the crime has been served.

If a potential sponsor was convicted of a crime outside Canada, the sponsorship bar is in effect until the sponsor:

  • Has been acquitted on appeal for the crime; or
  • Five years have passed since the sentence for the crime has been served and the sponsor demonstrates rehabilitation.

 

Five-year Sponsorship Bar for Persons Sponsored to Canada as a Spouse or Partner


Under the changes that came into force on March 2, 2012, a previously sponsored spouse or partner cannot sponsor a new spouse or partner within five years of becoming a permanent resident, even if the previously sponsored spouse acquires Canadian Citizenship during this five-year period. These changes affect spousal sponsorship applications received on or after March 2, 2012. Sponsoring other members of the Family Class will not be affected by the changes.


Spousal Sponsorship Changes – Conditional Permanent Residence


The Minister of Citizenship and Immigration introduced amendments to the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations which came into effect on October 25, 2012. The new amendments only apply to applications that are submitted after this date.

Under the amendments, spouses, common-law or conjugal partners who are in a relationship of two years or less with their sponsor and have no children in common with their sponsor at the time of sponsorship application are subject to a period of conditional permanent residence. For people who are landed under the conditional permanent residence category, it means that a sponsored spouse or partner must co-habit in a conjugal relationship with their sponsor for a period of two years after receiving permanent resident status. If this condition is not met, permanent residence status could be revoked and an order for removal from Canada may be issued.

Once a sponsored spouse or partner under this category receives permanent resident status, they are not required to provide evidence to CIC to show they are co-habiting in a conjugal relationship with their sponsor during the two year conditional period, unless the CIC requests it. The CIC may not investigate every sponsored person, only those they suspect where the condition is not being met. The CIC may request for information at any time so a sponsored spouse should keep any evidence ready to protect themselves in the event they are under investigation.

Minister Jason Kenney has indicated that these changes have been enacted to deter marriage fraud, although he never provided any information about the extent of the problem, and information released by Citizenship and Immigration Canada suggests that the issue of marriage fraud is far from being widespread.

There are certain exceptions to the conditional permanent residence requirement. The condition ceases to apply in cases where:

  • There is evidence of abuse, including physical, sexual, psychological, or financial abuse
  • There is evidence of neglect by the sponsor, such as failing to provide the necessities of life
  • The sponsor fails to protect the sponsored spouse or partner from abuse or neglect during the conditional period, including failure by the sponsor to protect a spouse or partner from abuse or neglect by another person related to the sponsor, whether or not the other person is in the household, or
  • The sponsor has died while the sponsored spouse or partner was still subject to the condition and had cohabited in a conjugal relationship with the sponsor up until the time of the sponsor’s death.

If there is evidence that the sponsored spouse or partner falls within an exception for the conditional permanent residence requirement, the sponsored spouse or partner can request for an exemption from the condition at any time within the two year conditional period by calling the CIC Call Centre at 1-800-242-2100.

The sponsored spouse or partner may have accompanying family members or sponsor members of the family class and their accompanying family members. The permanent resident status of these accompanying family members or sponsored members of the family class is contingent upon their sponsor meeting this condition.

Let’s take an example of a woman who is sponsored by her husband to Canada. The Application was submitted in November, 2012. By that point, the woman and her husband had only known each other for one year, and they had no common children. The woman become landed in Canada in June, 2013. The woman will be under the conditional permanent residence requirement for two years, until June, 2015. If the woman has a child from a previous marriage she wishes to sponsor to Canada, she may do so during this two year conditional period. However, if the woman is found not to have met the conditional permanent residence requirement, her permanent resident status may be revoked and the sponsorship of her son will be affected. The same rule applies if the woman came to Canada with an accompanying son from a previous
relationship under the same sponsorship by the current spouse. If the woman fails to meet the conditional permanent residence requirement, both the woman and her accompanying son’s permanent resident status will be affected.

If you a sponsored spouse who may be affected by the new conditional permanent residency, you should seek legal advice.

Further information on conditional permanent residence can be obtained from the Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) website at www.cic.gc.ca.